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Postwar Collection

Explore the controversies over reunification in the aftermath of a divisive civil war. This collection contains primary sources, mostly documents and still images, related to post-civil War North Carolina, including topics such as the Lowry War, the Ku Klux Klan, and partisan politics. Historical actors in North Carolina authored these primary sources. Students in history classes at North Carolina State University and other contributors added the primary sources to this collection.

"Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction," May 29, 1865

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President Andrew Johnson issued an amnesty proclamation to "induce all persons to return to their loyalty" to the United States of America. This was…

"Two Voices From North Carolina," June 3, 1865

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The article was written June 3, 1865, by employees of Harper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction…

Amnesty Petition of Theophelius H. Holmes, June 6, 1865

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Former Confederate General Theophelius Holmes had been educated at West Point and resigned his commission in the US Army to serve the Confederacy.…

Amnesty Petition of Richard C. Gatlin, June 8, 1865

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Richard C. Gatlin was excluded from amnesty under the third, fifth, and eighth provisions of Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of 1865. He had been…

Amnesty Petition of Richard B. Lee, June 12, 1865

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Richard B. Lee was excluded from amnesty due to the fact that he resigned his commission in the US Army and went on to serve as Lieutenant Colonel in…

Excerpt from theMemoirs of W.W. Holden, June 12, 1865

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As the governor of North Carolina, William Woods Holden, dealt with the challenge of incorporating newly freed slaves into society. This was a tough…

Amnesty Petition of Joseph W. Alexander, June 13, 1865

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Former Confederate navy officer and Naval Academy graduate Joseph Alexander attempted to show in his amnesty petition that he was raised to believe…

"Reorganization of States," June 17, 1865

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The article was written on June 17, 1865, by employees of Harper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction…

Amnesty Petition of John Manning, Jr., June 19, 1865

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John Manning, Jr. was born in Edenton, North Carolina in 1830. After graduating from the University of North Carolina in 1850, Manning began…

Amnesty Petition of W.G. Lewis, June 20, 1865

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Former Brigadier General in the Confederate Army, W.G. Lewis was excepted from pardon under the third provision. In his letter, Lewis stressed the…

"Our Duty in Reorganization," June 24, 1865

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The article was written June 24, 1865, by employees of Harper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction…

"Governor W. W. Holden," June 24, 1865

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The article was written on June 24, 1865 by employees of Harper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction…

"Making Haste Slowly," June 24, 1865

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This article was written on June 24, 1865, by employees of Harper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction…

Amnesty Petition of William S. Bradshaw, June 30, 1865

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An unpublished family genealogical record compiled by the late John W. Bradshaw of Alamance County, North Carolina, lists William Saurin Bradshaw as…

Amnesty Petition of Peterson Dunn, June 30, 1865

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After the North’s military victory of the Civil War, the difficult task of reforming the Union began. In order to facilitate the readmission…

Amnesty Petition of Thomas G. Walton, July 13, 1865

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Former Colonel of the Home Guard of the 8th Regiment, Thomas Walton, went to great lengths to explain his opposition to secession before the outbreak…

Amnesty Petition of R. L. Abernathy, July 13, 1865

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After the Civil War ended, President Andrew Johnson, who took over after President Lincoln was assassinated, made high ranking Confederate soldiers,…

Amnesty Petition of William A. Lash, July 22, 1865

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After the immense destruction and bloodshed suffered in the American Civil War the country turned its attention towards reconstructing the Union.…

Amnesty Petition of William McRae, July 28, 1865

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William McRae was excluded from Presidential amnesty under the third provision due to his rank of Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. McRae…

Amnesty Petition of William MacRae, July 28, 1865

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William Macrae was born in Wilmington, NC, in 1834. His father, Alexander Macrae was a General and had fought in the War of 1812, also briefly…

Amnesty Petition of Robert Vance, July 1865

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Robert Vance was excluded under the third provision of Andrew Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of 1865, and served as a brigadier general during the…

Amnesty Petition of Daniel Harvey Hill, July 1865

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Daniel Harvey (D.H.) Hill found himself excluded from Presidential amnesty due to the fact that he had been educated at West Point, and served as…

Amnesty Petition of Henry E. Coleman, August 3, 1865

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As much as former Colonel Henry Coleman worked to gain amnesty, he worked to gain sympathy. Coleman explained that he was a veteran of the battles of…

Amnesty Petition of J.J. Ward, August 3, 1865

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Joseph J. Ward, or J.J. Ward, was postmaster of Franklinton, which is a small town in Franklin County, North Carolina, during the civil war. Because…

Amnesty Petition of Thomas Bragg, August 15, 1865

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Thomas Bragg lived in Raleigh, North Carolina during the Civil War. He served as the Attorney General for the Confederacy after leaving the Senate and…

Amnesty Petition of J. B. Carpenter, August 15, 1865

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J. B. Carpenter

Rutherford County

Petitioned under the first clause, having been a Post Master at "Butler" in Rutherford County

Jonathan…

"THE GREAT STRUGGLE," August 19, 1865

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This article was published on August 19, 1865 byHarper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction efforts in…

Amnesty Petition of Samuel S. Gregory, August 22, 1865

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Samuel S. Gregory was from the city of Turkey in Samson County, North Carolina. He was a student of the U.S. Naval academy and an active midshipmen in…

Amnesty Petition of William P. Roberts, August 26, 1865

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William P. Roberts was excluded from Presidential amnesty under the third exception, due to his service as Brigadier General in the Confederate Army.…

Amnesty Petition of Robert D. Johnston, September 1, 1865

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As a brigadier general, Robert Johnston commanded an infantry company under Beauregard at the Battle of Manassas, and was excluded from amnesty under…

Amnesty Petition of W. D. Jones, September 21, 1865

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In the year 1865 Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, thus ending his presidency prematurely. President Andrew Johnson started his presidency after…

Amnesty Petition of George Davis, November 22, 1865

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George Davis was a lawyer from the Porter’s Neck area (now Pender County, New Hanover County at the time), who practiced law in Wilmington, NC.…

Arguments in the Impeachment Trial of W. W. Holden: Governor of North Carolina

This report goes into the various arguments used against governor Holden focusing on his suspension of writs of Habeas Corpus, wrongfully declaring…

Amnesty Petition of David Schenck, May 14, 1866

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David Schenck was an avid secessionist before the outbreak of the Civil War, supporting disunion as early as 1859. From Lincoln County, North…

"THE TRIAL OF THE GOVERNMENT," May 26, 1866

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The article was published on May 26, 1866, byHarper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction efforts in…

"Trent River Settlement,"June 9, 1866

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The Trent River, North Carolina, settlement was a freedmen’s village established under the auspices of the Freedmen’s Bureau. In these…

The House Joint Resolution proposing the 14th amendment to the Constitution, June 16, 1866

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The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed on June 13, 1866, but it would take over two years before the amendment was ratified. Finally,…

"IMPARTIAL SUFFRAGE AND GENERAL AMNESTY," December 08, 1866

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The article was published in the December 8, 1866 issue of Harper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the Reconstruction…

"WHAT NEXT?," December 29, 1866

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The article was published on December 29, 1866, by employees of Harper’s Weekly, a Republican newspaper, to share its opinions on the…

"National Politics," December 31, 1866

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This article identified with Reconstruction's major goal to reorganize the dismantled South. Focused on educating and reforming traditional southern…

"Peace of Radical Reconstruction," March 14, 1867

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As initial influence reached the southern states, there was angst toward Tennessee for being the only state that was exempt from a sort of military…

"The Impeachment Investigation," March 21, 1867

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At this point ,March 21, 1867, word that the President of the United States was facing impeachment had spread to the southern States. However,…

"Editorial Notes on the South," May 31, 1867

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Although this newspaper article focused on the South in general, there are important themes that addressed similar struggles of North Carolinian…

Amnesty Petition of John N. Maffitt, June 1, 1867

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After resigning his commission in the US Navy, J.N. Maffitt took a commission in the Confederate Navy and served as the commander of the privateer…

Amnesty Petition of John Newland Maffitt, June 1, 1867

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John N. Maffitt was a prominent officer in the Confederate Navy during the Civil War who resigned from his post in the United States Navy in order to…

"Let Us Reason Together," July 2, 1867

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In this July issue of The Old North State, a certain type of anger can be seen in the writing. Men were beginning to speak out on the unfairness of…

Petition to the Congress of the United States of America, July 8, 1867

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James Harris emphasized the good qualities of William Woods Holden. He identified him as a man who fought for the people and was deserving of holding…

"Republican Meeting in Ashe County," August 28, 1867

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In this article, the local Republican government asserted its loyalty to the government of the United States and laid out its Reconstruction goals to…

"Registration for Reconstruction," April 11, 1867

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To clear up any general confusion with the Reconstruction acts, The Old North State elaborated on registration benefits. As part of one of the many…

"The Reconstruction Prospect," November 12, 1867

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This article, given from a Democratic perspective, identified the sectional crisis in North Carolina and surrounding southern states and attempted to…

"The Supplementary Bill," March 28, 1867

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The March 28, 1867, issue ofThe Old North Statewas one of the first to elaborate on President Andrew Johnson's struggles with Congress. The…

Certificate of appointment: James H. Harris to City Commissioner for Raleigh, N.C., July 13, 1868

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An appointment certificate of James H Harris to City Commissioner for Raleigh, NC. Appointment was given by Governor Holden who believed in uplifting…

"A Proclamation by His Excellency, the Governor of North Carolina," October 12, 1868

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At the height of the Ku Klux Klan violence, Governor W. W. Holden issued five proclamations. These proclamations were a call of urgency to the people…

James' Plantation Freedmen's School, ca. October 1868

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Southern states, including North Carolina, had prohibited teaching slaves to read and write prior to the Civil War. With emancipation, former slaves…

The House Joint Resolution proposing the 15th amendment to the Constitution, December 7, 1868

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The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed on February 26, 1868 and ratified less than a year later on February 3, 1870. The 15th…

Message from Governor Holden to the General Assembly, December 16, 1869

This message delivered by Governor Holden to the General Assembly spoke of violence (presumably by the Ku Klux Klan) taking place in certain counties.…

"Lawlessness in North Carolina-Its Democratic Apologists," June 10, 1870

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The article described the violence the Ku Klux Klan carried out in North Carolina and compared it to the same violence that is seen in surrounding…

Letter from William Woods Holden to Honor. R.M. Pearson, July 26, 1870

This letter was written by Governor Holden to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Honor. R.M. Pearson. It was concerned with Ku Klux Klan activity…

"The North Carolina Troubles," August 20, 1870

Harper's Weekly was a Republican-based newspaper. The article, "The North Carolina Troubles," was an account of what was occurring in North Carolina…

Message from Governor Holden to the General Assembly, November 22, 1870

As Governor Holden attempted to oust the Ku Klux Klan from North Carolina, he issued many proclamations directed toward the Klan, before he reverted…

"A Notorious Desperado Killed in North Carolina - A Company of Soldiers After His Confederates - A Defaulting Book-keeper at Chicago," New York Times, December 17, 1870

The article is about the recent killing of Jack McLaughlin. He was killed while unarmed by Henry Biggs. McLaughlin had tried to take Biggs hostage,…

"Address to the Colored People of North Carolina," December 19, 1870

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This broadside, or poster, addressed to African Americans in North Carolina at the time of the impeachment of Governor William Woods Holden asked them…

"Address to the Colored People of North Carolina," December 19, 1870

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Seventeen state representatives wrote the “Address to the Colored People of North Carolina.” They wrote this address as a warning to the…

Letter of Judge Tourgee to Senator Abbott, May 24, 1870

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In this letter, Albion Tourgee, a civil rights activist and representative to the Constitutional Convention, wrote to Joseph Abbott (pictured), a…

Nathan A. Ramsey, Map of Chatham County, NC, 1870

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This map shows the location of the Endor Iron Works in relation to other locations in 19th Century Chatham County. It also shows the coal vein in the…

Capt. Nathan Ramsey, Map of Chatham County, North Carolina (1870)

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This map of Chatham County, created in 1870 by Confederate Captain Nathan A. Ramsey, lays out the major neighborhoods, churches, crossroads, stores,…

Testimony of Josiah Turner Jr.

Josiah Turner Jr. was a high profile witness called upon by the Board of Managers and the prosecution during Gov. Holden’s impeachment. Born…

Southern Claims Commission Chart 1

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A selection of accepted claims data from the Chowan River Basin

Southern Claims Commission Testimony for George Bond, Deposition of Joshua T. Stacy

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Page 18 of George Bond's claim to the Southern Claims Comission, in which Joshua T. Stacy discusses Mr. Bond's unionism.

Robert G. Mitchell's claim Witness Form

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Page Five of Robert G. Mitchell's rejected claim to the Southern Claim's Commission. This page is the form listing the names and residences of the…

Ely Williamson claim remarks

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Remarks by the Claims Commissioner on the claim of Mr. Williamson, which says that he was a freedman before the war

Testimony of William J. Murray in Holden's Impeachment Trial, 1871

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William J. Murray was called upon by the Board of Managers in the prosecution of Gov. Holden regarding any matters of insurrection in Alamance County.…

Arument on the Admission of Proof of Existence of the Ku Klux Klan of Mr. Graham

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William Graham’s argument on the admissions of evidence regarding the Ku Klux Klan is a pivotal motion for the Board of Managers charges. Mr.…

Arument on the Admission of Proof of Existence of the Ku Klux Klan of Mr. Boyden, 1871

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Nathaniel Boyden’s argument regarding the admission of evidence on the Ku Klux Klan is detrimental to the respondent’s case. The main…

Argument in the impeachment trial of W.W. Holden, governor of North Carolina, February 23, 1871

In this section of, "Argument in the impeachment trial of W.W. Holden, governor of North Carolina," a man named Mr. Conigland spoke on behalf of…

Testimony of James E. Boyd in the Impeachment Trial of William Holden, 1871

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James E. Boyd’s testimony during the trial was detrimental to the respondent’s defense. Boyd himself was a lawyer from Alamance County…

Southern Claims Commission remarks on the claim of Ellerton Newberne.

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Claim of Ellerton Newberne, listing his siezed schooner, impressed into rebel service to ferry supplies. It also discusses his leaving Bertie county…

Testimony of Albert Murray in Holden's Impeachment, 1871

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The testimony of Albert Murray, the sheriff of Alamance County, offers specific insight to the knowledge the sheriff had regarding the Ku Klux Klan…

George Bond Claim, Southern Claims Commission

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This is Page 3 of George Bond's accepted claim. It lists all of the items seized by union foraging parties, with valuation provided by him.

The…

"The Ku-Klux," April 1, 1871

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Harper's Weekly published the article, "The Ku-Klux," on April 1, 1871. The Ku Klux Klan, also known as the Klan, was a group that relied heavily on…

"The Legislature, April 7, 1871"

The Wilmington Journal was a Democratic newspaper. This article articulated the paper's support for the Democratic-Conservative party. It agreed and…

“Are the Robeson County, N.C., outlaws KuKlux?,” New York Times, May 16, 1871

In the brief note from the New York Times, there is a clear and concise clarification regarding criminal activity, and with whom these perpetrators…

"The People and the Ku-Klux," May 20, 1871

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This article in Harper's Weeklywas concerned with the President's proclamation concerning the Ku Klux Law. This law provided criminal penalties to…

"The Lesson of the Ku-Klux," May 27, 1871

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This article, "The Lesson of the Ku-Klux," was written on May 27, 1871, and published in Harper's Weekly. Harper's Weekly was a Republican newspaper.…

Testimony of Edwin A. Hull, June 26, 1871.

This testimony comes from the Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States,…

"Robin Hood Comes Again," New York Times, July 22, 1871

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The article from the New York Times looks at how Henry Lowry is ‘robber baron’ as he continues his campaign of terror in Robeson County.…

Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, Testimony of Giles Leitch, July 31, 1871

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In this excerpt from the a joint committee investigating the rise of violence of the Ku Klux Klan, there was a long and very detailed discussion…

Argument in the impeachment trial of W.W. Holden, governor of North Carolina, 1871

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In this section of, "Argument in the impeachment trial of W.W. Holden, governor of North Carolina," the impeachment charges brought against Governor…

Robert Drummond portrait

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Robert Drummond was a prisoner at Salisbury prison and published a popular memoir after the war and went on numerous speaking tours. His portrait was…

A New Expedition : Proposition to Capture the Lowery Gang of Outlaws Singular Enterprise, The New York Times, March 18, 1872

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In this article the reader is presented with the supposed first hand account of one George Abbot, who despite being hunted down by the Ku Klux Klan…

Summary Report, Claim of William Britton, June 11 1872

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This article marks the summary of the Southern Claim's Commission investigation into the claims of William Thomas Britton, a resident of Hertford…

The Scare on the Road, The Swamp Outlaw by Alfred Townshed, 1872

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In this chapter from the novel “The Swamp Outlaw”, we are shown the mindset of two of the people who lived in Robeson County during the…

Henry Berry Lowery, The Swamp Outlaw by Alfred Townshed, 1872

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In this chapter of “The Swamp Outlaw”, the outlaw is given a very detailed and more importantly his featured are presented in a way that…

Alfred Townsend, Lowery as A Brigand Leader, The Swamp Outlaws, 1872

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In this chapter from the novel “The Swamp Outlaw”, we are shown the mindset of two of the people who lived in Robeson County during the…

"Read and Circulate!," 1872

Read and Circulate! wasan article of campaign literature that brought attention to specific candidates in the election. More specifically Democratic…

"Life in North Carolina: The Murder of Senator John W. Stephens -- A Terrible Scene -- Shall His Assassins Be Amnestied?," New York Times, February 26, 1873

This is an article in the New York Times written after an amnesty bill was passed in the North Carolina State senate which release many KKK members…

Memo of Archive Office, 1875, Disallowed Claim of Thomas Gattis

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A memo sent to the Southern Claims Commission in regard to the claim of Thomas Gattis. Using information acquired from the captured Confederate…

Albion Tourgée on African Americans not being able to testify in court in A Fool's Errand, 1879

In Tourgee's A Fool's Errand he examines the fact that African Americans were not given the right to testify in a court room. This was an important…

Albion Tourgée on African Americans not being granted even the most minimal rights in A Fool's Errand, 1879

In this excerpt from Tourgee's A Fool's Errand he explains the ways in which African Americans were unable to be granted rights. Specifically this…

Albion Tourgée on restricted voting for African Americans in A Fool's Errand, 1879

In this excerpt from Tourgee's A Fool's Errand he describes a situation in which white southerners believed in some type of conditional right of…

Albion Tourgée on privileges of rights depended on how African Americans used them in A Fool's Errand, 1879

In this excerpt from A Fool’s Errand, Tourgee includes a letter of correspondence between him and a Northern individual with political prowess…

Albion Tourgée on the subserviance of African Americans and their lack of influence in A Fool's Errand, 1879

This excerpt from Tourgee's A Fool's Errand examines the understanding that African Americans were a subordinate race from the whites. This is the…

Albion Tourgée on the religiously divine nature of slavery in A Fool's Errand, 1879

This excerpt from Tourgee's A Fool's Errand describes the feelings of many white southerners that slavery was an inherent tenet to the Christian…

"The Rise of the Ku Klux Klan," 1880

A northern observer's view of the actions of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina focusing on a specific event where KKK members feathered and kicked…

Albion Tourgée on downfalls of Emancipation Proclamation in that it didn't grant for freedmen in Bricks Without Straw, 1880

In this excerpt from Tourgee's Bricks Without Straw, he addresses the issue of civil liberties granted to African Americans as a way to see the…

Albion Tourgée on Christianity as a northern motivation for abolition in Bricks Without Straw, 1880

In the excerpt from Tourgee's Bricks Without Straw he discusses the how religion served as a motivating factor for Northern abolitionists to advance…

Albion Tourgée on the southern mindset of innate superiority in Bricks Without Straw, 1880

In this excerpt from Bricks Without Straw Tourgee highlights the widely held belief of undeniable southern superiority in America in the time…

"Taken From the Record," October 5, 1880

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In this document, the author examined the harsh differences between blacks and whites in the southern judicial system and also described many accounts…

Letter from W. W. Holden to S. A. Ashe, November 29, 1881

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Williams Woods Holden was the governor of North Carolina from 1868 to 1871. He was the first governor to ever be impeached in North Carolina. His…

Albion Tourgée on northern perception of freedmen not utilizing rights in An Appeal to Caesar, 1884

In this excerpt from An Appeal to Caesar Tourgee describes the theme that if granted suffrage African Americans should be able to achieve the same…

Albion Tourgée on slavery, not race, being the point of attack for northern sympathizers in An Appeal to Caesar, 1884

In this excerpt from Tourgee's An Appeal to Caesar he shows his perspective, which started at a young age when he was a boy living in the North of…

Albion Tourgée on African American enfranchisement as a means to degrade the South in An Appeal to Caesar, 1884

In this excerpt from Tourgee's An Appeal to Caesar he addresses the theme of African American enfranchisement being a means to downgrade the South in…

Albion Tourgée on evolution of Christianity which ultimately led to accepting and endorsing U.S. slavery in An Appeal to Caesar, 1884

In this excerpt from Tourgee's An Appeal to Caesar he lays out the way through which Christianity eventually condoned the slavery of African Americans…

Albion Tourgée on race relations and white dominance over blacks in An Appeal to Caesar, 1884

In this excerpt from An Appeal to Caesar Tourgee makes a point to note that the southern feeling of superiority towards African Americans was…

William Woods Holden Memoir

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William Woods Holden dictated his memoir to his daughter in 1889-1890. The former Governor of North Carolina and the esteemed editor of the…

Washington Caruthers Kerr and Henry Benjamin Charles Nitze, Map of North Carolina Showing the Distribution of Iron Ores, 1892

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This map of the state of North Carolina in 1892 shows the locations of various iron ore deposits across the state. The ores listed are Magnetite, Red…

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

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In 1892 Homer Plessy challenged a 1890 law by the Louisiana General Assembly which required white and nonwhite passengers to ride in separate railway…

"Grand Democratic Rally," Raleigh News and Observer, May 13, 1898

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On May 12, 1898, the Democratic Party of North Carolina held its first campaign rally in Laurinburg N.C. Following the procession of a band and…

Letter of N. C. Bruce, North Carolina Battalion to the Editor, the News and Observer, May 28, 1898

1898 was a year of colliding interests in North Carolina. The Democratic Party campaigned to ‘redeem’ the state from the effects of…

"Jim Young, the Negro Politician, at head of the Committee on Education at the Blind Institution for White Children at Raleigh" Raleigh News and Observer, August 1898

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The political cartoon depicts a black politician overseeing a group of blind white women. The cartoon was intended to encouraging white supremacy by…

"White Men to the Rescue," Raleigh News and Observer, September 6, 1898

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In 1898 the Democratic Party embarked on a campaign to save North Carolina from the threats of "negro domination." From May until the election in…

"The Vampire that Hovers Over North Carolina (Negro Rule)," News and Observer, September 27, 1898

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This 1898 cartoon by Norman Jennet depicts an African-American vampire terrorizing a group of white men and women. The dominant theme of the image is…

Letter of Members of All Companies, Third North Carolina Infantry, U.S.V. to Secretary of War, October 5, 1898

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In April 1898 President William McKinley made a general call of volunteer soldiers to join the American Army in assisting the revolt against the…

"I Make Them Dance Or I Crush Them." Raleigh News and Observer, October 12, 1898

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During the 1898 White Supremacy Campaign, Democrats targeted white fusionists as much as African Americans. White Populists, they claimed, joined…

"Under Which Flag?," News and Observer, November 1, 1889

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The cartoon “Under Which Flag” emphasizes the importance race and gender played in the post-war South. The cartoon depicted two candidates…

"Chairman F.M. Simmons Issues a Patriotic and Able Address, Summing Up the Issues, and Appealing Elo- Quently to the White Voters To Redeem the State" Raleigh News and Observer, November 3, 1898

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Furnifold Simmons, a staunch Democrat and party chairman, made a final plea to voters in an editorial in the Raleigh News and Observer five days…

"The Game is Ended," Raleigh News and Observer, November 10, 1898

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On November 10, 1898 the Raleigh News and Observer published a political cartoon titled "The Game is Ended." The cartoon depicts former Republican…

"Defamer Must Go" Raleigh News and Observer, November 10, 1898

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The Raleigh News and Observer, a Democratic newspaper posted an article the laid out the results of a meeting in Wilmington, North Carolina on…

"Nineteen Negroes Shot to Death," New York Times, November 11, 1898

"Nineteen Negroes Shot to Death: Vengeance of White Citizens: Negro Publisher's Plant Destroyed by Indignant Men: New City Government Formed by the…

"The Excuses At Washington," Richmond Planet, November 19, 1898

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The Richmond Planet, a African American owned, Republican newspaper goes to great length to lay out their argument that the Attorney General John W.…

"Horrible Butcheries At Wilmington." Richmond Planet, November 19, 1898

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The Richmond Planet, a republican African American owned newspaper lists the number of African Americans killed in the November 10th 1898 riot in…

"More About the Butcheries." Richmond Planet, November 26, 1898

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The Richmond Planet an Republican African American newspaper published an article faulting various branches of reserve soldiers with participating in…

"The Story Of The Wilmington, North Carolina, Race Riots" Raleigh News and Observer, November 27, 1898

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The News and Observer, a Democrat newspaper based in Raleigh, North Carolina ran an article that was published originally by Collier’s Weekly…

The Democratic Hand Book, 1898

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The Democratic Handbook of 1898 outlines the official 1898 party platform of the Democratic Party of North Carolina. Following the victories of…

People's Party Hand-Book of Facts. Campaign of 1898.

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The People’s Party Hand-Book of Facts. 1898 was crafted by the State Executive Committee of the People’s Party (also known as the Populist…

"A Lesson in Geography," Raleigh News and Observer, June 26, 1900

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This cartoon by Norman Jennett appeared in the Raleigh News and Observer, a Democratic newspaper, on June 26, 1900. Jennett depicted the state of…

"Emancipation Day," Raleigh News and Observer, January 4, 1900

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This article from the Raleigh News and Observer, a Democratic newspaper, suggested that the Suffrage Amendmentproposed by the DemocraticParty was…

"Pritchard Spouts on His Resolution," Raleigh News and Observer, January 23, 1900.

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As part of a speech in defense of a resolution he presented to the Senate condemning the North Carolina Suffrage Amendment, United States Senator…

"Amendment Good For All Parties," Raleigh News and Observer, February 2, 1900

Amendment Good For All Parties.pdf

This article from the Democratic Newspaper the Raleigh News and Observer attempted to show that the disfranchisement amendment proposed by the…

"Chairman F.M. Simmons' Speech," Raleigh News and Observer, April 12, 1900

Chairman F.M. Simmons\' Speech.pdf

In his speech at the State Democratic Convention, reprinted in the Raleigh News and Observer, Democratic Chairman Furnifold Simmons neatly summed up…

The Proposed Suffrage Amendment: The Platform and Resolutions of the People's Party, April 18, 1900

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In 1899, the Democratic Party, which had returned to power after a four year absence, passed a Suffrage Amendment designed to disfranchise…

"Creoles Like the Amendment," Raleigh News and Observer, May 13, 1900

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This editorial appeared with other articles in the Democratic Raleigh News and Observer that examined how disfranchisement measures similar to the one…

"These Three Have Met Again," Raleigh News and Observer, May 24, 1900

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Political cartoonist Norman Jennett crafted this cartoon for the May 24, 1900 issue of the Raleigh News and Observer. The cartoon depicted a large,…

"He Doesn't Like to Let Go," Raleigh News and Observer, May 26, 1900

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During the campaigns of 1898 and 1900, political cartoonist Norman Jennett created a number of viciously racist depictions of African Americans for…

Laws and Resolutions of the State of North Carolina General Assemble at its Adjourned Session 1900, Raleigh, June 12, 1900

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The elections of 1898 returned the Democratic Party to majority status in both houses of the General Assembly. The party largely replaced the…

"Cartoons Are For All," Raleigh News and Observer, June 14, 1900

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The editor of the Raleigh News and Observer, prominent Democrat Josephus Daniels, objected to Republican Party Chairman A.E. Holton’s…

"Butler Color Blind," Raleigh News and Observer, June 17, 1900

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This brief article from the Democratic Raleigh News and Observer summarized the events which took place at a Republican convention in Morganton, North…

"Senator Butler at Morganton," Raleigh News and Observer, June 19, 1900

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In this cartoon, political cartoonist Norman Jennett depicted an incident in which North Carolina Senator Marion Butler reportedly mistook a mulatto…

"Makes Them Color Blind," Raleigh News and Observer, June 19, 1900

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In this article, the Democratic Raleigh News and Observer attacked Populist Marion Butler for his lack of commitment to white supremacy. The article…

"Why the Radicals are Mad," Raleigh News and Observer, June 24, 1900

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This political cartoon by Norman Ethre Jennett appeared in the Democratic Raleigh News and Observer. It depicts four caricatured African Americans…

"As Fusionists Think it Will Be," Raleigh News and Observer, June 27, 1900

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This cartoon is one of several Norman Jennett drawings from the Raleigh News and Observer which depicted African Americans violently attacking…

"Whale Them With Sticks," Raleigh News and Observer, June 27, 1900

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This editorial from the Raleigh News and Observer railed against Fusionist governmental leaders whose advice, it claimed, might provoke a violent…

"Negro Rule," Raleigh News and Observer, July 4, 1900

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Political Cartoonist Norman Jennett drafted this particulary vicious image in June of 1900. An African-American vampire is shown terrorizing the white…

Untitled Cartoon, Raleigh News and Observer, July 8, 1900

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This cartoon, which was created by Norman Ethre Jennett for inclusion in the Democratic newspaper the Raleigh News and Observer, depicts a group of…

"The Winston Situation," Raleigh News and Observer, July 13, 1900

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In this cartoon, Norman Jennett illustrated the arrest of a Democratic registrar from Winston, North Carolina, who Democrats claimed was charged after…

"Negroes Trying to Register Illegally," Raleigh News and Observer, July 13, 1900

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The author of this article from the Raleigh News and Observer attempted to rally whites to the cause of white supremacy by warning them that a number…

"The Assembly of 1899-1900" Raleigh, 1899-1900

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In a sweeping victory, the Democrats won 93 out of 118 seats in the North Carolina General Assembly in the 1898 election. They campaigned heavily on…

Defense of the Negro Race----Charges Answered. Speech of Hon. George H. White, of North Carolina, in the House of Representatives, January 29, 1901

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This speech was delivered before the United States House of Representatives on January 29, 1901 by George H. White, the Representative of the Second…

Voter Registration Card from Alamance County, 1902

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This voter registration card was created after the Democrat-controlled North Carolina General Assembly passed a Suffrage Amendment in 1900. The…

Statement of Rev. C.M. Pepper, Mary Norment, 1909

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In this part of her history of the Lowry family, Mary Norment wrote a firsthand account of a raid that occurred on the plantation of Mrs. Nash,the…

The Lowry History – Genealogy - Mary Norment

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The following excerpt covers the family history of the Lowry’s from the initial patriarch of the family, James Lowrie, and the events that…

Reconstruction in North Carolina

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A dissertation by J.G. De Roulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. at the University of North Carolina. He writes a very dunnningite-like version of the events…

John G. Lea's confession to the Ku Klux Klan murder of John W. Stephens, July 2, 1919

This is the confession of John G. Lea concerning the death of John W. Stephens. Lea was a KKK member who wrote a confession that was to be read after…

North Carolina During Reconstruction

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This small book contains small descriptions of pictures, pamphlets, newspapers, and leslation passed during Reconstruction. Its primary purpose…

Richard L. Zuber, North Carolina During Reconstruction (1969)

Richard L. Zuber’s work, North Carolina During Reconstruction, gives a very brief history of North Carolina following the end of the Civil War.…

Calvin Hoggard's letter to the Southern Claims Commission

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The last page of Calvin Hoggard's claim, this page contains a letter by Mr. Hoggard to the Commission explaining his circumstances. Most…

Edgar Folk and Bynum Shaw, W. W. Holden, (1982)

W. W. Holden was written to analyze Holden’s entire lifetime. Folk and Shaw’s main objective is to write about the first Governor in…

"The Wilmington Race Riot of 1898." Colonel Thomas W. Clawson August 24, 1898

This document was written to justify the events in Wilmington NC. Colonel Clawson repeats a newspaper article written on August 18, 1898 by Alfred…

Memorial to the Confederate Dead, Windsor, NC

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A memorial to the Confederate Dead, erected in Windsor, North Carolina across the street from the courthouse.

Survey of Allowed Claims in Chatham County, NC

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This table lists the basic information about the approved claims from the Southern Claims Commission in Chatham County, NC.

Survey of Disallowed Claims in Chatham County, NC

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This table provides the basic information for the disallowed claims for the Southern Claims Commission in Chatham County, North Carolina.

Southern Claims Commission Chart 2 Barred and Disallowed

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A chart showing all of the barred and disallowed claims for the Chowan River Basin.

Testimony of Essie Harris, 1871.

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Page one of Essie Harris Testimony via the Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary…

Testimony of Essie Harris, 1871.

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Page two of Essie Harris Testimony via the Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary…

Testimony of Essie Harris, 1871.

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Page three of Essie Harris Testimony via the Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary…

Testimony of Essie Harris , 1871.

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Page four of Essie Harris Testimony via the Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary…

Testimony of Essie Harris, 1871.

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Page five of Essie Harris Testimony via the Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary…

Testimony of Essie Harris, 1871.

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Page six of Essie Harris Testimony via the Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary…

The Declaration of Insurrection in the Impeachment Trial of Governor William Wood Holden, March 7, 1870

The Declaration of a State of insurrection in Alamance County, North Carolina, by Governor W. W. Holden, stemmed from the atrocious acts that were…

Memoirs of W. W. Holden (1911)

This is a collection of letters written by William Woods Holden, prior, during, and after the Civil war. It includes letters about the KKK and his…

"An Act to Divide North Carolina into Eight Congressional Districts," Raleigh, North Carolina General Assembly (1871)

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After the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution in 1870, which enfranchised the sizable African American population in…

Ku Klux Klan Mask, c. 1870

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This Ku Klux Klan mask belonged to Colonel John Campbell Van Hook Jr, of Person County, North Carolina.

Petition of Joseph Etheridge

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Joseph Etheridge's petition to the Southern Claims Commission, listing what he claims was taken by Union foraging parties and his valuation of those…

Summary Report, 1874, Disallowed Claim of Austin and William Bryan

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Remarks given by the Southern Claims Commissioner in response to the disallowed claim of Austin and William Bryan. These men were ex-slaves, and their…

Summary Report, 1879, Allowed Claim of Allen Ellis

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Remarks by the Southern Claims Commissioner in response to the allowed claim of Allen Ellis. This claimant was an abolitionist preacher in Chatham…

Summary Report, 1876, Allowed Claim of Elizabeth Mason

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Remarks given by the Commissioner of Southern Claims in response to the allowed claim of Elizabeth Mason. The Commissioner of Claims found that she…

Summary Report, 1879, Disallowed Claim of Marmaduke Temple

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Remarks given by the Commissioner of Southern Claims in response to the disallowed claim of Marmaduke Temple. This claim was disallowed because the…

Summary Report, 1873, Disallowed Claim of Allen Oldham

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Remarks by the Commissioner of Southern Claims in response to the claim of Allen Oldham. This claim was disallowed because the claimant was unable to…

Summary Report, 1873, Disallowed Claim of Eli Harris

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Remarks by the Southern Claims Commission in response to the disallowed claim of Crawford Stevens. This claim was disallowed because the claimant was…

Summary Report, 1872, Disallowed Claim of Crawford Stevens

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The remarks given by the Southern Claims Commission in response to the disallowed claim of Crawford Stevens. This claim was disallowed because the…

Summary Report, 1879, Disallowed Claim of Robert Sturdivant

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Remarks by the Commissioner of Southern Claims in response to the disallowed claim of Robert Sturdivant. This claim was disallowed because the…

Salisbury National Cemetery entrance

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From the main gate at Salisbury National Cemetery in Rowan County, North Carolina. This image was taken on March 15, 2014. It shows a stone wall…

Salisbury Monuments

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A photo of the Salisbury National Cemetery it focuses on the thousands of graves along with the Maine and Federal Monuments. It was a beautiful day…

Pennsylvania Monument at Salisbury National Cemetery

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Created in 1910 the Pennsylvania Monument was built to honor prisoners from the Commonwealth who died at Salisbury prison. The Pennsylvania Monument…

Grave of William Jones at Salisbury National Cemetery

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William Jones, a veteran of the Spanish American War, was buried at Salisbury National Cemetery in 1954. His grave is one of many from the…

Maine Monument, Salisbury National Cemetery

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Built in 1909 the Maine Monument was created to honor the Maine soldiers who died in Salisbury prison during the Civil War. Paid for by the Maine…

Federal Monument, Salisbury National Cemetery

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The largest memorial in Salisbury National Cemetery, the Federal Monument was built to honor the unknown dead of Salisbury prison. Paid for in 1873…

Federal Monument, Front Panel, Salisbury National Cemetery

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Main panel of the Federal Monument describing the impossible number of Salisbury prison dead.

Grave to Richard McConville Jr., Salisbury National Cemetery

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One of many contemporary graves, McConville's grave is part of the larger life of Salisbury National Cemetery. McConville was killed in the early…

Grave to Edward Hood, Salisbury National Cemetery

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Edward Hood was a private during the Second World War, his grave is an example of how commemoration changed during the World Wars. Instead of saying…

Salisbury trenches

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At Salisbury the dead were too numerous for Confederates to provide individual graves, and instead dumped the bodies into eighteen trenches. These…

Salisbury National Cemetery Gate

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The gate to the National Cemetery is wrought iron and imposing.

Federal Monument side label

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The side panel for the Federal Monument describes the purpose of the memorial to "the memory of the unknown union soldiers who died in the confederate…

Cemetery Field Salisbury

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The size of the National Cemetery at Salisbury is impressive. The space has recently been expanded to allow four hundred more graves for veterans.…

Salisbury National Cemetery Entrance

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The Salisbury National Cemetery is the only such cemetery in North Carolina: born out of a Confederate prison honoring the unknown Union dead. The…