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Primary Sources

Biggs, William. "War! War!" The Tarboro Southerner, March 24, 1870. Accessed September 18, 2014. war&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=North Carolina&date2=1870&proxtext=War! War!&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1.

Cecelski, David S. "Loud Calls for Galloway." In The Fire of Freedom: Abraham Galloway and the Slaves' Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Geo. L. Mabson et al., “Address to the Colored People of North Carolina,” Civil War Era NC, accessed October 22, 2014, /admin/items/show/906.

"The North Carolina Troubles." Harper's Weekly, August 20, 1870. Accessed September 18, 2014

"The Troubles in North Carolina." Harper's Weekly, September 10, 1870. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Holden, William W. The Memoirs of W. W. Holden. Vol. 11. Durham: Seeman Printery, 1911.  

"Lawlessness in North Carolina-Its Democratic Apologists." The New York Times, June 10, 1870. Accessed September 18, 2014.

Read and Circulate! North Carolina: University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1872. 

Raper, Horace W. William W. Holden: North Carolina's Political Enigma. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.  

Tourgee, Albion W. Undaunted Radical: The Selected Writings and Speeches of Albion W. Tourgee. Edited by Mark Elliott and John David Smith. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010.

Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Wilmington journal. (Wilmington, N.C.), 14 April 1871. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.  <

Wise, Jim. Murder in the Courthouse: Reconstruction & Redemption in the North Carolina Piedmont. Charleston: History Press, 2010.


Secondary Sources

Brisson, Jim D. ""Civil Government Was Crumbling Around Me": The Kirk-Holden War of 1870." North Carolina Historical Review 88, no. 2 (2011): 123-63. Accessed September 18, 2014.  

Hahn, Steven. "Of Paramilitary Politics." In A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge: Havard University Press, 2003.

Massengill, Stephen E. "The Detectives of William W. Holden, 1869-1870." North Carolina Historical Review 62, no. 4 (1985): 448-87. Accessed September 18, 2014.  

Trelease, Allen W. "Republican Reconstruction in North Carolina: A Roll-Call Analysis of the State House of Representatives, 1868-1870." The Journal of Southern History 42, no. 3 (1976): 319-44. Accessed October 21, 2014.