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Primary Sources

A Voice from Rebel Prisons; Giving an Account of Some of the Horrors of the Stockades, 1865. The Library of Congress. Internet Archive. Accessed October 30, 2014.

Berlin, Ira et al., ed.  Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867, Series I, Volume I, The Destruction of Slavery.  London: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Berlin, Ira et al., ed.  Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867, Series II,The Black Military Experience.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served with the United States Colored Troops: Infantry Organization, 31-35th.  The National Archives. Accessed October 22, 2014.

Colyer, Vincent.  Brief Report of the Services Rendered by the Freed People to the United States Army in North Carolina.  New York: Vincent Colyer, 1864.  Accessed as e-book through North Carolina State Libraries October 15, 2014.

"Enlistment of Negroes." New York. New York Times. August 21, 1862.

"ESCAPING UNION OFFICERS SUCCORED BY SLAVES." New York. Harper's Weekly. March 12, 1864.

"Negro Troops in the Civil War." New York. Harper's Weekly. November 5, 1887.

Perkins, Frances Beecher.  "Two Years with a Colored Regiment. A Woman's Experience.": Electronic Edition.  Article from New England Magazine, Jan. 1898. James C. Beecher Family Papers, 1850-1946. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Accessed October 22, 2014.

"Recruiting Poster, 1863." Center For Media and Learning, The Graduate Center, CUNY. Pictuting U.S. History. Accessed November 10, 2014.

Sawyer, Oscar G.  “The Florida Campaign: Details of the Operations of the Union Troops Under General Seymour.”  The New York Herald.  March 1, 1864.  Accessed October 29, 2014. Accessible Archives.

Singleton, William Henry.  Recollections of My Slavery Days.  Raleigh, NC:  Office of Archives and History, North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, 2007.

"The Fighting in Florida." The Charleston Mercury. March 7, 1864. Accessed November 4, 2014. Accessible Archives.

Yacovone, Donald, ed.  A Voice of Thunder: The Civil War Letters of George E. Stephens. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Secondary Sources

Berlin, Ira et al.  Slaves No More: Three Essays on Emancipation and the Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Berlin, Ira.  “Who Freed the Slaves?  Emancipation and Its Meaning in American Life.”  In Union & Emancipation: Essays on Politics and Race in the Civil War Era, 105-121. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1997.

Broadwater, Robert P.  The Battle of Olustee, 1864: The Final Union Attempt to Seize Florida.  Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2006.

Browning, Judkin.  Shifting Loyalties: The Union Occupation of Eastern North Carolina. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Browning, Judkin.  “Visions of Freedom and Civilization Opening before Them: African Americans Search for Autonomy during Military Occupation in North Carolina.” In North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction, 69-100.  Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Bryant, James K., II.  The 36th Infantry United States Colored Troops in the Civil War: A History and Roster.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2012.

Burkhardt, George S.  Confederate Rage, Yankee Wrath: No Quarter in the Civil War.       Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007.

Dobak, William A.  Freedom by the Sword: The U.S. Colored Troops, 1862-1867.  New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2013.

Fleche, Andre M.  “African-American Soldiering.” In A Companion to the U.S. Civil War[electronic resource], 297-315.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

Glatthaar, Joseph T.  “Black Glory: The African American Role in Union Victory.”  In Why the Confederacy Lost, 298-310.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Guterl, Matthew Pratt.  American Mediterranean: Southern Slaveholders in the Age of Emancipation.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Luke, Bob, and John David Smith.  Soldiering for Freedom: How the Union Army Recruited, Trained, and Deployed the U.S. Colored Troops.  Baltimore, MD:  Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.

Nulty, William H.  Confederate Florida: The Road to Olustee.  Tuscaloosa, AL and London: The University of Alabama Press, 1994.

Reid, Richard M.  Freedom for Themselves: North Carolina’s Black Soldiers in the Civil War Era.  Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Smith, John David.  Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era.  Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Urwin, Gregory J. W., ed. Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities Reprisals in the Civil War. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2004.

U.S. National Archives, “Teaching With Documents: The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiersin the Civil War”, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration,, accessed November 4, 2014.

Williams, David.  I Freed Myself: African American Self-Emancipation Civil War Era.  NewYork: Cambridge University Press, 2014.