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Semi-Monthly Report of Outrages by Whites against Blacks in the State of North Carolina, February 10, 1867. Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870. Microfilm Publication M843, Roll 33, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group 105. National Archives, Washington, DC.

United States Congress, Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire Into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, in the The Online Books Page, (accessed February 24, 2013).


Hodes, Martha. “The Sexualization of Reconstruction Politics: White Women and Black Men in the South After the Civil War.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 3, no. 3 (1993).

Jolley, Daniel Wayne. “The Ku Klux Klan in Rutherford County, North Carolina, 1870-1871.” Master's thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1994.

Kinshasa, Kwando. Black Resistance to the Ku Klux Klan in the Wake of Civil War. McFarland & Co Inc Pub, 2006.

Martinez, Michael. Carpetbaggers, Cavalry, and the Ku Klux Klan: Exposing the Invisible Empire During Reconstruction. N.p.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007.

Proctor, Bradley “The Reconstruction of White Supremacy: The Ku Klux Klan in Piedmont North Carolina, 1868 to 1872.” Master's thesis, UNC Chapel Hill, 2009. In UNC Libraries, (accessed February 28, 2013).

Rable, George. But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction. N.p.: University of Georgia Press, 2007.

Van Dyke, Jeffrey Alan. “Bedsheets and broadsheets: covering the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina.” Thesis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986.