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Primary Sources


Zebulon Baird Vance Papers

Raleigh, North Carolina

North Carolina State Archives

Private Collection of Zebulon Baird Vance.

Secondary Sources

Brown, Alexis Girardin. “Women Left Behind: Transformation of the Southern Belle, 1840-1880." Historian 62 (Summer 2000): 759-778.

Brown, David. “North Carolinian Ambivalence: Rethinking Loyalty and Disaffection in the Civil War Piedmont.” In North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. edited by Paul D. Escott. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Bynum, Victoria E.  Unruly Women: The Politics of Social and Sexual Control in the Old South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Faust, Drew Gilpin. “Altars of Sacrifice: Confederate Women and the Narratives of War.” The Journal of American History. Vol. 76 no. 4 (March 1990): 1200-1228.

 ––––. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

––––. “Family and Female Identity in the Antebellum South: Sarah Gayle and Her Family.” In In Joy and In Sorrow: Women, Family, and Marriage in the Victorian South, 1830-1900, edited Carol Bleser (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Gallagher, Gary W. “’On Their Success Hang Momentous Interests’: Generals” In Why the Confederacy Lost, edited Gabor Boritt: New York, Oxford University Press, 1992.

Glymph, Thavolia. Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Hodes, Martha. “The Sexualization of Reconstruction Politics: White Women and Black Men in the South after the Civil War.” Journal of the History of Sexuality. 3, no. 3 (January 1993): 402-417.

Jabour, Anya. Scarlett’s Sister: Young Women in the Old South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Kerber, Linda K.  “Separate Spheres, Female Worlds, Woman's Place: The Rhetoric of Women's History.”  The Journal of American History 75, no. 1 (June, 1988): 9-39.

Kirshenbaum, Andrea Meryl. “The Vampire That Hovers Over North Carolina": Gender, White Supremacy, and the Wilmington Race Riot of 1898,” Southern Cultures. Vol. 4, no. 3 (1998): 6-30.

McCurry, Stephanie. “The Two Faces of Republicanism: Gender and Proslavery Politics in Antebellum South Carolina” The Journal of American History 78, no. 4 (March 1992): 1245-1264.

–––––––– Masters of Small Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the Political Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

––––––––  “Citizens, Soldiers’ Wives, and “Hiley Hope Up” Slaves: The Problem of Political Obligation in the Civil War South” in Gender and the Southern Body Politic, edited by Nancy Bercaw (University Press of Mississippi, 2000): 95-235.

McKinney, Gordon B. “Women’s Role in Civil War Western North Carolina.” The North Carolina Historical Review. Vol. 69 (1992): 37-56, (accessed February 16, 2013): 37-56.

Murrell, Amy M. “Of Necessity and Public Benefit: Southern families and Their Appeals for Protection” In Southern Families at War: Loyalty and Conflict in the Civil War South. ed. Catherine Clinton (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

The North Carolina Collection. “Brief History of N.C. Civil War Currency.” University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Accessed April 10, 2014

Osthaus, Carl R.  “The Work Ethic of the Plain Folk: Labor and Religion in the Old South”: The Journal of Southern History. Vol. 70, No. 4 (Nov., 2004): 745-782.

Rable, George C. Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

“Sherman's March through North Carolina” North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. Accessed April 10, 2014

Silber, Nina. Gender and the Sectional Conflict. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Sinha, Manisha. “Revolution or Counterrevolution?: The Political Ideology of Secession in Antebellum South Carolina” Civil War History 46, no.3 (Sep 2000): 206-226.

Whites, LeeAnn. The Civil War as a Crisis in Gender: Augusta, Georgia, 1860-1890.  Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1995.

–––––. Gender Matters: Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Making of the New South. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.